原则

LEMErS(人机交互五大原则)

超预期用户体验5要素:

  • 易学(Learnability):次使用某个功能时,用户能否很容易完成基本任务?
  • 高效(Efficiency):一旦用户学会了这个功能,他们能否很快完成任务?
  • 易记(Memorability):若有一段时间不使用程序了,再重新使用时,用户能否很快恢复到原来的使用水平?
  • 纠错力(Errors):使用某个功能时,用户会犯多少错误?他们能否快速地纠正错误?
  • 愉悦度(Satisfaction):使用这个功能时,用户的愉快程度如何?

界面8黄金法则(Ben Shneiderman)

  1. 努力做到连贯
  2. 允许频繁使用系统的用户使用快捷方式
  3. 提供信息反馈
  4. 为关闭这一动作设计对话框
  5. 提供简单的设计处理
  6. 应该方便用户取消某个操作
  7. 用户应掌握控制权
  8. 降低短期记忆荷载

防错原则

通过改变设计可以把过失降到最低。该原则最初是用于工业管理的,但在交互设计也十分适用。如在硬件设计上的 USB 插槽;而在界面交互设计中也是可以经常看到,如当使用条件没有满足时,常常通过使功能失效来表示(一般按钮会变为灰色无法点击),以避免勿按。

渐进式呈现 (Progressive Disclosure)

用户想将注意力集中到手上的事上,尽量少分心,但如有必要又能深入到细节当中。

用途

用于减轻不知所措的感觉。

解决方案

用最少的信息描述当前的事。

将复杂的及很少用到的选项移出主界面,只显示最重要的信息,逐步显示其它信息和选项,这样便于控制界面的复杂度。

本模式有很多使用示例。最简单的应用方式之一为显示更多链接,它提示用户查看关于某事物的更多信息。

说明

减少杂乱、混乱和认知性的工作负荷,聚焦用户注意力,在不同的界面上使用本模式,简单的、复杂的、抽象的、具体的,不断提高使用经验。

本模式将高级的或很少使用的功能放在次级界面上,减少用户对当前事项的认知负荷,避免分心,便于学习使用应用系统,降低出错率。

显示与用户当前活动相关的信息或功能,必要情况下才显示其它信息,让用户关注手上的事儿。隐藏复杂的或很少使用的功能,使应用系统界面去混乱化。只在需要时才显示其它信息,让用户在一个界面上进行复杂、多个步骤的 操作。

第一步仅显示关键信息,但又可以进行下一步。用户完成一个步骤后,显示进行下一步需要的信息,并保持前面步骤的信息,允许用户修改这些内容。与向导模式差不多,用户在当前步骤中输入的内容会影响下一步中的行为。

Ant design 十大设计原则

  1. 亲密性 Proximity
  2. 对齐 Alignment
  3. 对比 Contrast
  4. 重复 Repetition
  5. 直截了当 Make it Direct
  6. 简化交互 Keep it Lightweight
  7. 足不出户 Stay on the Page
  8. 提供邀请 Provide Invitation
  9. 巧用过渡 Use Transition
  10. 即时反应 React Immediately

Don Normans Principles of Design

These principles are from Don Normans seminal book, The Design of Everyday Things.

  1. Visibility The more visible functions are, the more likely users will be able to know what to do next. In contrast, when functions are out of sight, it makes them more difficult to find and know how to use.

  2. Feedback
    Feedback is about sending back information about what action has been done and what has been accomplished, allowing the person to continue with the activity. Various kinds of feedback are available for interaction design-audio, tactile, verbal, and combinations of these.

  3. Constraints
    The design concept of constraining refers to determining ways of restricting the kind of user interaction that can take place at a given moment. There are various ways this can be achieved.

  4. Mapping
    This refers to the relationship between controls and their effects in the world. Nearly all artifacts need some kind of mapping between controls and effects, whether it is a flashlight, car, power plant, or cockpit. An example of a good mapping between control and effect is the up and down arrows used to represent the up and down movement of the cursor, respectively, on a computer keyboard.

  5. Consistency
    This refers to designing interfaces to have similar operations and use similar elements for achieving similar tasks. In particular, a consistent interface is one that follows rules, such as using the same operation to select all objects. For example, a consistent operation is using the same input action to highlight any graphical object at the interface, such as always clicking the left mouse button. Inconsistent interfaces, on the other hand, allow exceptions to a rule.

  6. Affordance
    A term used to refer to an attribute of an object that allows people to know how to use it. For example, a mouse button invites pushing (in so doing acting clicking) by the way it is physically constrained in its plastic shell. At a very simple level, to afford means to give a clue (Norman, 1988). When the affordances of a physical object are perceptually obvious it is easy to know how to interact with it.

37 Signals Principles

These are the principles that 37 signal (now known as Basecamp) built their wildly successful business on.

  1. Useful is forever
    Bells and whistles wear off, but usefulness never does. We build useful software that does just what you need and nothing you don’t.

  2. Great service is everything
    We’re famous for fast and friendly customer service. We work hard to make sure we live up to that reputation every day.

  3. Clarity is king
    Buzzwords, lingo, and sensationalized sales-and-marketing-speak have no place at 37signals. We communicate clearly and honestly.

  4. Our customers are our investors
    Our customers fund our daily operations by paying for our products. We answer to them — not investors, the stock market, or a board of directors.

  5. The basics are beautiful
    We’ll never overlook what really matters: The basics. Great service, ease of use, honest pricing, and respect for our customer’s time, money, and trust.

  6. No hidden fees or secret prices
    We believe everyone is entitled to the best price we can offer. Our prices are public, published right on our site, and the same no matter who you are.

  7. Software should be easy
    Our products are intuitive. You’ll pick them up in seconds or minutes, not hours, days or weeks. We don’t sell you training because you don’t need it.

  8. Long-term contracts are obscene
    No one likes being locked into something they don’t want anymore. Our customers can cancel at any time, no questions asked. No setup/termination fees either.

Laws of Simplicity

These are the 10 Laws of Simplicity as described in John Maeda's book with the same name. They describe strategies to make things simpler and applies not only to design but to technology, business and life.

For a more in depth understanding of these design principles read The Laws of Simplicity.

  1. Reduce
    The simplest way to achieve simplicity is through thoughtful reduction.

  2. Organize
    Organization makes a system of many appear fewer.

  3. Time
    Saving in time feel like simplicity.

  4. Learn
    Knowledge makes everything simpler.

  5. Differences
    Simplicity and complexity need each other.

  6. Context
    What lies in the periphery of simplicity is definitely not peripheral.

  7. Emotion
    More emotions are better than less.

  8. Trust
    In simplicity trust.

  9. Failure
    Some things can never be made simple.

  10. The one
    Simplicity is about subtracting the obvious, and adding the meaningful.

Shneiderman's "Eight Golden Rules of Interface Design

These Golden Rules of Interface Design are taken from the book, Designing the User Interface, which Ben Shneiderman co-authored. They were originally created in 1987 from the research Shneiderman did in Human Computer Interaction. They are applicable for most interactive systems.

These principles can help you create a well designed User Interface and thereby improve the usability of the system.

Strive for consistency Consistent sequences of actions should be required in similar situations; identical terminology should be used in prompts, menus, and help screens; and consistent commands should be employed throughout.

  1. Enable frequent users to use shortcuts
    As the frequency of use increases, so do the user's desires to reduce the number of interactions and to increase the pace of interaction. Abbreviations, function keys, hidden commands, and macro facilities are very helpful to an expert user.

  2. Offer informative feedback.
    For every operator action, there should be some system feedback. For frequent and minor actions, the response can be modest, while for infrequent and major actions, the response should be more substantial.

  3. Design dialog to yield closure.
    Sequences of actions should be organized into groups with a beginning, middle, and end. The informative feedback at the completion of a group of actions gives the operators the satisfaction of accomplishment, a sense of relief, the signal to drop contingency plans and options from their minds, and an indication that the way is clear to prepare for the next group of actions.

  4. Offer simple error handling.
    As much as possible, design the system so the user cannot make a serious error. If an error is made, the system should be able to detect the error and offer simple, comprehensible mechanisms for handling the error.

  5. Permit easy reversal of actions
    This feature relieves anxiety, since the user knows that errors can be undone; it thus encourages exploration of unfamiliar options. The units of reversibility may be a single action, a data entry, or a complete group of actions.

  6. Support internal locus of control.
    Experienced operators strongly desire the sense that they are in charge of the system and that the system responds to their actions. Design the system to make users the initiators of actions rather than the responders.

  7. Reduce short-term memory load.
    The limitation of human information processing in short-term memory requires that displays be kept simple, multiple page displays be consolidated, window-motion frequency be reduced, and sufficient training time be allotted for codes, mnemonics, and sequences of actions.

Eight Principles of Information Architecture

Dan Brown, who's a seasoned Information Architect, has laid out these eight principles as a foundation for approaching IA.

  1. Principle of objects
    Treat content as a living, breathing thing with a lifecycle, behaviors and attributes.

  2. Principle of choices
    Create pages that offer meaningful choices to users, keeping the range of choices available focused on a particular task.

  3. Principle of disclosure
    Show only enough information to help people understand what kinds of information they’ll find as they dig deeper.

  4. Principle of exemplars
    Describe the contents of categories by showing examples of the contents.

  5. Principle of front doors
    Assume at least half of the website’s visitors will come through some page other than the home page.

  6. Principle of multiple classification
    Offer users several different classification schemes to browse the site’s content.

  7. Principle of focused navigation
    The principle of focused navigation – Don’t mix apples and oranges in your navigation scheme.

  8. Principle of growth
    Assume the content you have today is a small fraction of the content you will have tomorrow.

Gerhardt-Powal 的认知工程学原理

  1. 自动化不必要的工作负荷

    消除心智计算,评估,比较和任何不必要的思考,为高级任务释放认知资源。

  2. 降低不确定性

    以清晰明确的方式显示数据,以减少决策时间和错误。

  3. 融合数据

    将较低级别的数据汇总多更高级别的摘要,以减少认知负荷。

  4. 有意义地呈现新信息,以助于理解

    新的信息应该以熟悉的框架呈现(如:模式、隐喻、日常词汇),使信息更容易理解。

  5. 使用与功能相关的名称

    显示名称和标签应与上下文相关,有助于记忆识别

  6. 以一致的、语义化的方式组织资料

    数据应按逻辑、一致性的分组,以便于减少信息搜索时间。

  7. 限制数据驱动的任务

    使用适当的图形、颜色帮助改善数据解读。

  8. 仅显示必要的信息

    排除与当前任务无关的无关信息,以便用户可以将注意力集中在关键数据上。

  9. 适当提供多种数据格式

    系统适当提供不同格式或详细程度的数据,以提高认知灵活性并满足用户偏好。

  10. 适当的冗余

    为了解决原则6和8之间的冲突,有时需要提供适当的冗余信息设计。

Gerhardt-Powals' cognitive engineering principles 原文

Gerhardt-Powals' cognitive engineering principles

Although Nielsen is considered the expert and field leader in heuristic evaluation, Jill Gerhardt-Powals developed a set of cognitive engineering principles for enhancing human-computer performance. These heuristics, or principles, are similar to Nielsen's heuristics but take a more holistic approach to evaluation. Gerhardt Powals' principles are listed below.

  1. Automate unwanted workload

    Eliminate mental calculations, estimations, comparisons, and any unnecessary thinking, to free cognitive resources for high-level tasks.

  2. Reduce uncertainty

    Display data in a manner that is clear and obvious to reduce decision time and error.

  3. Fuse data

    Bring together lower level data into a higher level summation to reduce cognitive load.

  4. Present new information with meaningful aids to interpretation

    New information should be presented within familiar frameworks (e.g., schemas, metaphors, everyday terms) so that information is easier to absorb.

  5. Use names that are conceptually related to function

    Display names and labels should be context-dependent, which will improve recall and recognition.

  6. Group data in consistently meaningful ways

    Within a screen, data should be logically grouped; across screens, it should be consistently grouped. This will decrease information search time.

  7. Limit data-driven tasks

    Use color and graphics, for example, to reduce the time spent assimilating raw data.

  8. Include in the displays only that information needed by the user at a given time

    Exclude extraneous information that is not relevant to current tasks so that the user can focus attention on critical data.

  9. Provide multiple coding of data when appropriate

    The system should provide data in varying formats and/or levels of detail in order to promote cognitive flexibility and satisfy user preferences.

  10. Practice judicious redundancy

    Principle 10 was devised by the first two authors to resolve the possible conflict between Principles 6 and 8, that is, in order to be consistent, it is sometimes necessary to include more information than may be needed at a given time.

Weinschenk & Barker 分类

Weinschenk and Barker classification 原文

Susan Weinschenk and Dean Barker created a categorization of heuristics and guidelines by several major providers into the following twenty types:

  1. User Control

    The interface will allow the user to perceive that they are in control and will allow appropriate control.

  2. Human Limitations

    The interface will not overload the user’s cognitive, visual, auditory, tactile, or motor limits.

  3. Modal Integrity

    The interface will fit individual tasks within whatever modality is being used: auditory, visual, or motor/kinesthetic.

  4. Accommodation

    The interface will fit the way each user group works and thinks.

  5. Linguistic Clarity

    The interface will communicate as efficiently as possible.

  6. Aesthetic Integrity

    The interface will have an attractive and appropriate design.

  7. Simplicity

    The interface will present elements simply.

  8. Predictability

    The interface will behave in a manner such that users can accurately predict what will happen next.

  9. Interpretation

    The interface will make reasonable guesses about what the user is trying to do.

  10. Accuracy

    The interface will be free from errors.

  11. Technical Clarity

    The interface will have the highest possible fidelity.

  12. Flexibility

    The interface will allow the user to adjust the design for custom use.

  13. Fulfillment

    The interface will provide a satisfying user experience.

  14. Cultural Propriety

    The interface will match the user’s social customs and expectations.

  15. Suitable Tempo

    The interface will operate at a tempo suitable to the user.

  16. Consistency

    The interface will be consistent.

  17. User Support

    The interface will provide additional assistance as needed or requested.

  18. Precision

    The interface will allow the users to perform a task exactly.

  19. Forgiveness

    The interface will make actions recoverable.

  20. Responsiveness

    The interface will inform users about the results of their actions and the interface’s status.

最后更新: 4 months ago